Dual models for nonhadrons
Abstract
The possibility of describing particles other than hadrons (leptons, photons, gauge bosons, gravitons, etc.) by a dual model is explored. The VirasoroShapiro model is studied first, interpreting the massless spintwo state of the model as a graviton. We prove that in the limit of zero slope (with g_{vs}^{2}α' held fixed) one obtains the Einstein theory of gravitation accompanied by a massless scalar field. Next, the Veneziano model is studied for small slope as an expansion in powers of α'. It is known from previous work that the zeroth order term is precisely the YangMills theory of a multiplet of massless vector bosons. We show that there are order α' terms arising both from the dual tree and loop graphs. The former constitutes a relatively unimportant modification of the YangMills theory, whereas the latter involves the coupling of the massless scalar and graviton states of the VirasoroShapiro model. Thus one may take the point of view that gravity arises as a unitarization effect in a dual unified theory of electromagnetism and weak interactions. In order to obtain the correct values for the electric charge and Newton's constant it is necessary that α'  10 ^{34} GeV ^{2} The coupling of massless scalar states is also studied.
 Publication:

Nuclear Physics B
 Pub Date:
 October 1974
 DOI:
 10.1016/05503213(74)900108
 Bibcode:
 1974NuPhB..81..118S